Przejdź do treści

David M. Wkrótce został stracony główny egzaminator po tym, jak odkryto, że egzaminy zdają i otrzymują tytuł jinshi tylko kandydaci z południa Chin [18]. Rebelia Cao Qina była jednak ostatnim wydarzeniem, kiedy Mongołowie w służbie dynastii Ming mieli znaczący wpływ na politykę dworu; chociaż wielu mongolskich dowódców zachowało swoje dziedziczne arystokratyczne tytuły, znaczenie arystokratycznego pochodzenia zmalało, gdy stanowiska dowódcze otrzymywali również ludzie skromniejszego pochodzenia [36].

See also: List of tributaries of China In ancient Chinathe tribute system provided an administrative means to control their interests, as well as providing exclusive trading priorities to those who paid tribute from foreign regions.

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It was an integral part of the Confucian philosophyseen by the Chinese as equivalent to younger sons looking after older parents by devoting part of their wealth, assets or goods to that purpose. Political marriages have existed between the Chinese empire and tribute states, such as Songtsen Gampo and Wencheng Gyasa. China often received tribute from the states under the influence of Confucian civilization and gave them Chinese products and recognition of their authority and sovereignty in return.

System Tribute Chinski Zakupy

There were several tribute states to the Chinese-established empires throughout ancient history, including neighboring countries such as Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Borneo, Indonesia and Central Asia. According to the Chinese Book of Hanthe various tribes of Japan constituting the nation of Wa had already entered into tributary relationships with China by the first System Tribute Chinski Zakupy.

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Although Japan eventually returned to the tributary system during the Muromachi period in the reign of Ashikaga Yoshimitsuit did not recommence presenting tribute. Thailand was always subordinate to China as a vassal or a tributary state since the Sui dynasty until the Taiping Rebellion of the late Qing dynasty in the midth century. This assured them their sovereignty and the system assured China the incoming of certain valuable assets.

Most of the Asian countries joined this system voluntary. The Chinese emperors made sure that the gifts they paid to other states were known as mere gifts, not tributes. Even at times when a Chinese dynasty had to bribe nomads from raiding their border such as in the Han Dynasty and the Song Dynastythe emperors gave "gifts" to the Xiongnu and the Khitan.

The only time when a dynasty paid formal tribute to Jakie sa najlepsze mozliwosci handlowe was during the southern Song dynastywhere tribute was given to the Jin Dynasty for peace.

System Tribute Chinski Zakupy

The Jin Dynasty, having occupied the plains around the Yellow River, also saw itself as the legitimate holder of the "Mandate of Heaven". In addition, during Zheng He's expeditionshis fleet often returned with foreign envoys bearing tribute.

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The foreign states received gifts in return to build tributary relationships between the Ming Dynasty and the foreign kingdoms. Tribute activities occupy several chapters in the Twenty-Four Histories.

System Tribute Chinski Zakupy

Western European notions of tribute in medieval times[ edit ] This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

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See also: List of tributaries of China In ancient Chinathe tribute system provided an administrative means to control their interests, as well as providing exclusive trading priorities to those who paid tribute from foreign regions. It was an integral part of the Confucian philosophyseen by the Chinese as equivalent to younger sons looking after older parents by devoting part of their wealth, assets or goods to that purpose. Political marriages have existed between the Chinese empire and tribute states, such as Songtsen Gampo and Wencheng Gyasa. China often received tribute from the states under the influence of Confucian civilization and gave them Chinese products and recognition of their authority and sovereignty in return. There were several tribute states to the Chinese-established empires throughout ancient history, including neighboring countries such as Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Cambodia, Borneo, Indonesia and Central Asia.

Raiderslike Vikings and Celtic tribes, could also exact tribute instead of raiding the place if the potential targets agreed to pay an agreed amount of valuables; the Danegeld is a famous and large-scale example.

Tribute was not always money, but also valuables, effectively making the payers hostages kept unpillaged in exchange for good behaviour.

Various medieval System Tribute Chinski Zakupy required tribute from their vassals or peasantsnominally in exchange for protection to incur the costs of raising armies, or paying for free-lance mercenaries against a hostile neighbouring state. That system evolved into medieval taxation and co-existed as a secular approximation of the churchly tithe levied on production.

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The Islamic Caliphate[ edit ] Main article: Jizya The Islamic Caliphate introduced Wyzwania w wielostronnym systemie handlowym new form of tribute, known as the ' jizya ', that differed significantly from earlier Roman forms of tribute.

According to Patricia Seed: What distinguished jizya historically from the Roman form of tribute is that it was exclusively a tax on persons, and on adult men.

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Roman "tribute" was sometimes a form of borrowing as well as a tax. It could be levied on land, landowners, and slaveholders, as well as on people.

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Even when assessed on individuals, the amount was often determined by the value of the group's assets and did not depend—as did Islamic jizya—upon actual head counts of men of fighting age. Christian Iberian rulers would later adopt similar taxes during their reconquest of the peninsula. This form of tribute was later also applied by the Spanish empire to their territories in the New World.

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March Learn how and when to remove this template message Modern elements of tribute are restricted to highly formal and ceremonial rituals, such as formal gifts being given to prove either fealty or loyalty upon the inauguration of a president, a wedding of a president's child while the president is in office, or the accession or the marriage of a member of a royal family.