River transport - the oldest type of the message. In , shortly after an episode of severe flooding in Huai River Basin, the government of the People's Republic of China announced a long term program to control Huai River system. To wszystko co o sobie wiemy.
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The study focuses on a comparison between the Middle Nile valley forts and the The study focuses on a comparison between the Middle Nile valley forts and the Roman fortlets from the Egyptian Eastern Desert, which are the closest parallel within the borders of the Empire.
The two groups are analysed in terms of chronology, size, layout, construction techniques, building materials and spatial organization. Similarities and differences can be observed.
Nile River Valley Trading Systems Middle Nile valley forts are more recent than the Roman installations. They represent a combination of local traditions and Roman influences built by people with a wide knowledge of the subject.
Rubel and H. Voß, Archaeopress Research Interests: Download.
Axis of the region is an approx. An integral element visible in the fertile areas of the banks of the river are ruins of defensive architecture.
There are There are several hundred in the region. In literature, they are mention as old forts, fortresses, castles, fortifications, etc. Curtains enclose various size areas and often are reinforced with towers and bastions. In many cases, gates are additionally protected.
Schweinfurth, Georg August 1836-1925
They are often the largest buildings in the region, constituting well visible landmarks. The oldest of them are dated to the Kerma period approx.
I have often had the opportunity to talk about the fortifications with the inhabitants of the nearest villages during archaeological expeditions in the years and The interviews were informal and usually conducted in the company of an interpreter. These data, enriched with information from the literature, form the basis for the observations that will be presented in this article.
It can be noticed that the older the ruins, the less historical information about them survived in the oral traditions.
The most widely known and most detailed are the stories of modern fortifications dating back to the 16thth centuries nub. During research in the village of Jawgul, where two diffi are located, interviews with residents provided detailed information about its history and former inhabitants.
The oral tales confirmed and supplemented the results of archaeological research.
According to the present-day inhabitants, medieval and ancient defensive architecture is often the work of other peoples who inhabited these areas in the past.