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Cathy Burns explains that the Blazing Star, or pentagram, has many meanings germane to the doctrines of Illuminism and the occult. Type iconographique et thème à propos de deux icônes à Dečani , Zograf, 6, , p. In its inverted form center the same star becomes the sign of consummate evil and hellish intentions. He was written about in a similar manner several years later by Martin Opitz , the royal poet and historiographer serving Władysław IV, in a small speech given in for the king s wedding with Cecilia Renata of Austria, daughter of Emperor Ferdinand II. Catherine s in his late years ; Johann Corvinus Rabe, , doctor of theology.

Original halos were lost along with substantial portions of the gold ground, of which only three small fragments survive: two larger areas one on the right-hand side, with legible incised acanthus leaves arranged in the candelabra form, and one on the left, as well as the smallest one, above the Virgin s head, which was inpainted by Wioletta Malska in order to give the background a uniform appearance.

Kopera, J. Malska, Konserwacja obrazu sztalugowego, p. Podlecki some areas of the painting halos had been decorated with metal revetments and probably also with crowns. The Virgin s distinctive eyes, Serwer Haasbot. beneath the arcs of her eyebrows, are delicately shaded.

She has a straight nose, prominent lips and rounded chin. Minute light-coloured hatchings in the corners of her eyes, above the upper lip and on the chin delicately brighten up the face. The equally distinctive eyes of the Child are more circular than those of his mother, his nose is shorter and slightly upturned, and the shape of his face is more rounded.

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Particularly noticeable are the Virgin s hands with long, slim fingers and beautifully delineated nails. The best preserved fragments of Mary s maphorion and the Child s chiton reveal soft folds: more numerous on the Virgin s right shoulder, in her bent arm as well as on the Child s left sleeve, where they are modelled by means of subtle passages from darker tones in the furrows to lighter ones on bulging parts, which are additionally brightened up with white highlights.

Even the more substantial losses to the paint layer in some parts do not obscure the superb workmanship of the icon, which was painted freely and with flair, manifesting the artist s full command of his craft.

Also the exquisitely balanced proportions of the figures can be appreciated, even though the panel was likely truncated and the painted surface was additionally reduced by the frame that was applied on top of it.


The palette, which is rather limited, consists of the white and gold colours of the Child s garments and the blue and red of the Virgin s robes, as well as the beautiful ochre hues in the flesh tones of both figures. Undoubtedly the most prominent is the intense light-blue tone of the Virgin s maphorion. An analysis carried out during the painting s conservation treatment has revealed that these parts belong to the original paint layer and were executed using azurite and lead white.

There was, however, no uniform or fixed pattern that would assign particular 14 Ibidem, p Ibidem, pp. The Virgin Eleousa, Novgorod, early 13 th c. Photo: 4. Saints Peter and Paul, Novgorod, mid th c. Photo: colours to individual items of clothing.

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And thus, there exist depictions the Virgin in entirely blue or entirely purple garments, but she is also shown wearing a blue maphorion and a purple gown, or the other way round, in a purple maphorion and a blue robe.

This variability can be seen across the entire realm of Byzantine art. Nevertheless, a particular popularity of depictions of the Virgin in entirely blue garments is evident especially in Constantinopolitan painting of the post-iconoclastic period. Chronologically first among these examples is the mosaic in the apse of the Church of Saint Sophiafollowed by the commemorative mosaic in the tympanum over the gateway to the south vestibule in that church, which shows the founders: Constantine I with a model of the city and Justinian I with a model of the Church of Saint Sophia before the enthroned Virgin and Child 10 th c.


Mango, Materials for the Study of the Mosaics of St. Mango, E. Hawkins, The Apse Mosaics of St. Teteriatnikov, Mosaics of Hagia Sophia, Istanbul: The the Church of St Mary Pammakaristos as well as mosaics and frescoes in the Monastery of the Chora alluded to this tradition at the beginning of the fourteenth century, when they depicted the Virgin in intensely blue robes.

Louvre A53dated tothat was offered to the famous Saint-Denis Abbey in Its dedication miniature fol. Mary s garments: a maphorion and a dress worn underneath are intensely blue. Underwood, New York,vol. II, fig.

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III, figs; H. Belting, C. Mango, D. Mouriki, The Mosaics and Frescoes of St. L art byzantin dans les collections publiques françaises, Paris,pp 10 10 5. Among examples produced outside Constantinople, we should first consider the works executed in the capital s immediate proximity, that is, in Rus.

The Child s left hand is slightly raised while he holds a scroll, propped on his left knee, in his right. He is dressed in a red chiton and a himation decorated with abundant gold hatching.

Mary is singled out by her short purple veil, patterned with gold lattice and trimmed with a gold band, put on top of a maphorion in strikingly light-blue hue. Hardly visible beneath the maphorion is the red skull-cap and a fragment of Mary s purple dress, trimmed with double gold band.

The icon is dated to the beginning of the thirteenth century and associated with the Novgorod milieu. Evans, W. Wixom, exh.

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In the mid-nineteenth century it was included in the iconostasis at the church s south wall and, hidden under a silver revetment fromit did not attract scholarly attention untilwhen the revetment was removed and a painting layer dated to the eighteenth or early seventeenth century was revealed. Only in Octoberafter preliminary examination of the surface of the painting had been conducted, was it decided that the re-painting be removed, and thus the original medieval layer, tentatively dated to the twelfth or thirteenth centuries and ascribed to the Novgorod school, was uncovered.

This kind of intensely light-blue hue can be found in later works as well, such as, for example, the four icons depicting Anastasis, Ascension of Christ, Pentecost, and the Dormition of the Virgin Mary from the Feast tier of the iconostasis in the Cathedral of Saint Sophia in Novgorod, dated to The saturated bright-blue tones, discovered after the icons had been cleaned, are found mainly in the mandorla of Christ, but also in the garments of the apostles.

This could have been a constant feature of the Novgorod painting, present there from the very outset, provided the icon with the Apostles Peter and Paul [Fig.

Zonova, Bogomater Reversal Krieger Trend Imperator Profesjonalne systemy handlowe, pp as in note Lazarev, Russkaia ikonopis, p. Smirnova, Novgorodskaia ikona Bogomater Znamenie, pp as in note The Virgin Blachernitissa,cod. Louvre A53, fol. Photo: after Byzance. L art byzantin dans les collections publiques françaises, Paris, approximately to the mid-eleventh century, was indeed produced in this milieu.

It is generally assumed that it was intended for the Novgorod Cathedral of Saint Sophia, but owing to its substantial size m was never part of the iconostasis. Another group of comparative material can be found in the works of art from the artistic circles of the Kingdom of Serbia in the Palaiologan era. A brightened-up palette especially the bright blue tones with additional white highlights in the tonal modelling of the garments similar to that of the Cracow icon, can be seen in the frescoes of the Holy Trinity Church at Sopoćani, from aboutcommissioned by King Stefan Uroš I Milutin.

The frescoes belong to the first period of Palaiologan painting. It should be remembered that scholars usually distinguish two main periods in Palaiologan painting. The first one, spanning the last decades of the thirteenth and the 27 V.

Lazarev, Russkaia ikonopis, pp. Symposium de SopoćaniBelgrade,pp; T. Velmans, Les valeurs affectives dans la peinture murale byzantine au XIII e siècle et la manière de les représenter, in ibidem, pp first quarter of the fourteenth century, is characterised by free, painterly style.

The subsequent, second, period is distinguished by an expressive linear manner which at the end of the fourteenth century evolved into academic mannerism. Lazarev, Istoriia vizantiĭskoi zhivopisi, 2 vols, rev. Xyngopoulos, Thessalonique et la peinture macédonienne, Athens, ; O. Internationalen Byzantinisten-Kongreß, Munich,pp. IV, pp ; S. Mary Pammakaristos as in note 17 ; D. Symposium de GračanicaBelgrade,pp 12 12 work s stylistic affinities with the painting of the Palaiologan era from the last quarter of the thirteenth and the beginning of the fourteenth century.

The Virgin Eleousa, second half of the 15 th c. Photo: after N. Chatzidakis, Ikonen die Sammlung Velimezis, Athens, iconographic motifs, with simultaneously expanding the narrative Marian and Christological cycles. A new canon of human figure appeared with monumental proportions and expressively modelled garments, amply folded or picturesquely draped.

Physiognomic types changed as well: the former ascetic and serious appearances were replaced by more serene types, with softly modelled facial features. The palette became simpler but markedly brighter, with a predominance of bright blue and green as well as amethyst violet. The richness of their various hues can be best appreciated in the tonal modelling of garments and in the landscapes. Similar features can be seen in the faces of the Virgin and the Christ Child in the painting under discussion.

The oval, softly modelled outlines of Mary s face, with ochre-yellow underpainting of flesh colours and delicate highlights in the form of minute lines along the lower eyelid, above the upper lip and in the dimple of the chin were standard features of painterly modelling at that time.

Particularly notable is also the painterly manner of rendering the shape of the narrow nose, with its rounded tip highlighted in white by means of a delicate oval patch. The painter masterfully combined cold and warm hues in order to achieve the natural warmth of the flesh colour. The same Palaiologan attributes can be seen in the face of the Christ Child, with its markedly rounded cheeks, large eyes and short, as if upturned, nose.

At the present, preliminary stage of research it would be difficult to indicate works of art comparable to Reversal Krieger Trend Imperator Profesjonalne systemy handlowe Cracow icon, but many of its characteristics suggest the A distinctive iconographic feature of the Cracow icon is the Christ Child Opcje akcji Clara. pressing his face against the Virgin s cheek and his hand nestled inside that of his mother.

In my first note about the painting I used the epithet Eleousa, focusing on the characteristic motif of the Christ Child hugging his face against the cheek of his mother. Kruk, in contrast, used the epithet Sweet-loving, being an equivalent of the Greek term Glykophilousa.

It was likely stimulated to some extent by the excellent exhibition, Mother of God, opened in October in the Benaki Museum in Athens. A conference, entitled Images of the Mother of God: Perceptions of the Theotokos in Byzantium, organised jointly by the museum and the Institute for Byzantine Studies in Athens, was held in January of the following year.

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Both the exhibition catalogue and conference proceedings were published under the editorship of Maria Vassilaki of the University of Thessaly Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλίας at Volos. Janocha, Ikony w Polsce, pp as in note 6 ; P.

Kruk, Ikony-obrazy, p. Vassilaki, exh. Vassilaki, Burlington, Ibidem according to index. Ėtingof, Obraz Bogomateri. The tenderness of the Virgin and the Christ Child her son is a simultaneous expression of God s love of the people and unified love of the faithful of Christ, the Incarnate Logos.

In contrast, the epithet Eleousa referred to the Mother of God. Therefore, it has been customary to use the epithet of the Eleousa for an image of the Virgin hugging to her cheek the Christ Child, who is usually holding a scroll a symbol of the Incarnate Logos and sometimes encircles Mary s neck with his arm.

Initially, the research on Byzantine Marian iconography was dominated by the conviction that the Eleousa type had originated outside Byzantium. Likhachev thought that it emerged in medieval Italian painting and was transplanted to Byzantine art only in its late period, in the Palaiologan 36 Ibidem, pp Ibidem, p Dionizjusz z Furny, Hermeneia, czyli objaśnienie sztuki malarskiej, trans.

Kania, introduction and ed. Smorąg Różycka, Cracow,p O. Ėtingof, Obraz Bogomateri, pp as in note Drandaki, Greek Icons 14 th 18 th Century. Likhachev, Istoricheskoe znachenie italo-grecheskoĭ ikonopisi: izobrazheniia Bogomateri v proizvedeniiakh italo-grecheskikh ikonopistsev i ikh vliianie na kompozitsii niekotorykh proslavlennykh russkikh ikon, Saint Petersburg, ; N.

This attribution has retained its validity also in the current literature, although most scholars date the icon to the first quarter or first half of the twelfth 42 N. Likhachev, Istoricheskoe znachenie, especially pp as in note Kondakov, Ikonografiia Bogomateri, vol. But this is not about the history of the Gdańsk oratory. Therefore, we shall list only some of its representatives, professors of rhetoric and poetry of the Gdańsk Gymnasium: Johann Mochingeralso the pastor at St.

Johann Mochinger let us begin with him gave on 25 May in the gymnasium lecture theatre, which gathered for the occasion not only the professors and students, but also representatives of the city elite, the funeral speech following the death of Sigismund III Vasa. The laudation of the departed ruler was combined with glorification of the Reversal Krieger Trend Imperator Profesjonalne systemy handlowe, especially of its great representative, Casimir IV Jagiellon, who had rendered particularly great service to Gdańsk.

In the same year more specifically, on 2 December it befell that Mochinger spoke once more in the Gymnasium lecture theatre. The occasion was the coronation of the heir to the throne, Władysław IV Vasa.

Once again, the orator gave an erudite speech referencing the Bible, works of philosophers and ancient historians, and authors interested in the future of the Commonwealth, particularly that of Royal Prussia.

He brought up the ancestors of the newly-crowned Władysław, in whom irrespective of the genealogical ties he saw someone inspiring greatest hope, a man that was just, devout and brave, the perfect knight and ruler.

He was written about in a similar manner several years later by Martin Opitzthe royal poet and historiographer serving Władysław IV, in a small speech given in for the king s wedding with Cecilia Renata of Austria, daughter of Emperor Ferdinand II. In it, he brought up the ancestors of the Polish ruler and of the princess, but he mostly Opcje Konto handlowe UK on the virtues of the newly-weds.

He presented the king as an advocate of Sarmatia, father of the fatherland, great at waging wars and at organising peace. The depiction of Cecilia Renata was not without idealising elements, either.

The glorification of the ruler and his spouse in Opitz s speech was not unusual. In the baroque, which is when the eulogist of Władysław IV was active, the humanist model of the world, with its readiness to praise individuals, with its acceptance of the dynastic tradition, and with its feudal and knightly style of honouring the ruler, remained relevant. A speech was given in Latin by Professor Christoph Behr, who, in his laudatory address, mentioned subjects such as Gdańsk loyalty to the king and to the Crown.

In his speech, also being one of the laudatory address kind, he referred to the departed as the father of the fatherland, and using the arsenal of laudatory topoi, extolled him as an advocate of peace and protector of cities, towns and villages, patron of the Prussian land. The authors listed as examples herein used in their orations laudatory techniques known in the Greco-Roman antiquity and in later eras, repeated by the orators and poets of many centuries.

They included motifs, topoi even, evidenced by numerous examples, emphasising the lineage of the subjects of the speech descendants of the Piast 16 18 English Section and Jagiellonian dynastiestheir actions, including those of war vanquishers of Moscow and TurkeyReversal Krieger Trend Imperator Profesjonalne systemy handlowe efforts for example, with Swedendedication to Gdańsk.

Thus, the ancient art of oratory, performed in accordance with the rhetorical rules in Latin form, became firmly established in the awareness of Gdańsk citizens, or at the very least Gdańsk elite. From oratory prose, let us move on to poetry. Poems connected with city or family life usually used German, occasionally Polish and French.

For people making statements in those languages, their only motive for writing were the bonds of family and friendship; the events concerning those closest to them. That was when the family author type emerged; of course, Gdańsk also saw the author types creating in the client-patron or student-master configurations; or in the configuration of peers professor-professor; student of the Academic Gymnasium and university student.

The authors presented genethliacons, poems for dies natalis anniversaries, for the name days or wedding days, could be relied upon when it came to mourning. And they also wrote in Latin sometimes. The daughter of Jan Filip Braynea physician and botanist, wrote for herself, for her loved ones, parents and friends, less often to honour a king or election of the mayor.

She left behind reflective and religious poems, often composed to known melodies, epithalamia sometimes in the form of an idyllepicedia and epitaphs, name day and birthday poems, cantatas for the New Year and her father s name day, humorous letters to her mother, father and friends all of which remain in manuscript form to this day.

Aside from those numerous works written in German, we can find one Latin poem a witty epigram titled Vom Toback, with a German translation anyway.

Speaking of the family muse, of poetry created in a circle of friends, one may not fail to mention special poems, sophisticated puns, puzzles of sorts acrostics and anagrams. Acrostic was also popular among Gdańsk authors, writing in this case chiefly in German.

Anagrams provided the readers with pleasure of deciphering the riddle. As puns, they became elements of jokes and bon mots, shows of style, that enriched not only laudatory poems, but also satirical and humorous ones. Royal gratulatoria and funeralia were quite different in their nature, dominated by Latin. The authors, ex officio as it were, spoke up on the days of elections and coronations, military victories of the ruler and peace negotiations, following a monarch s death, and also for the occasion of a king s entry into Gdańsk and his stay in the city, always repeating the same literary behaviours of an almost ritual nature.

When doing that, they repeated conventionalised composition schemes, genre structures epigrams, epitaphs, epicedia, songs and odes, epinicions. In the verbal and elocutionary Latin: elocutio sphere, they returned to the epithets and metonymy known since antiquity and often made into topoi, such as: Pater Urbis, Decus Urbis, Agger Urbis, but also more broadly rex armatus, rex iustus, vir in consultando prudentissimus et bellando fortissimus They also referenced other stylistic tropes originating from the ancient cultural heritage, as well as figures of speech and mind, chiefly those that built laudation usually amplified, no less.

Laudatory purposes were also served by chronosticha chronograms. It should be added that the inscriptions were in both Latin and German. On the frieze on the eastern side from ul. Długa of the Golden Gate let us begin with this examplethere is an inscription that reads: Concordia res parvae crescunt, discordia magnae concidunt, and on the western side: Es müsse wohl gehen denen, die dich lieben.

Es müsse Friede sein inwendig in deinen Mauren und Glück in deinen Palästen! The former is from Sallust Gaius Sallustius Crispus s Bellum Iugurthinum and is a variation of the original text: Nam concordia parvae res crescunt, discordia maximae dilabuntur 10, 6.

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The other inscription is composed of two verses of Psalm Psalm6 7which read as follows in English: Mozliwosci handlowe Liot those who love you be secure.

May there be peace within your walls and security within your citadels. New International Version. Another inscription is from house no. Długa, which used to be owned by famous Gdańsk families: Zierenbergs Czirenbergs and Freders. It was placed in three elliptical fields in the upper part of the building, at the attic level, with the motto placed within the outer fields. The left field is filled with the words: Virtutibus infirma surgunt Through virtues, the small [countries perhaps?

In the middle field, the words Pro invidia can be seen, referring as much to the tenement building as to the motto. Another example is from ul. Above the portal numbered of house no. They reference the Book of Proverbs: A good name is more desirable than great riches; to be esteemed is better than silver or gold.

Proverbs The inscription may be read as an abridged version of that particular biblical text. What was the Latin of the open and closed space inscriptions like; what was it like at Gdańsk schools; what was the Latin of the works of the scholars lingua doctorum from the city on the Motława and of the authors of literary texts like?

When referring to it, we often say and write metonymically the language of the ancient Romans. Did they indeed use their language? To answer those questions, one would need to study the manuscripts and printed matter preserved to this day; the language, its inflection, syntax, orthography, as well as the rhetorical and poetical standards assumed by the authors, recorded therein.

Perhaps the citizens of Gdańsk more often used only selected phrases and formulas adopted from classical Latin or from the Latin of current statutes, official letters and correspondence. This is worth investigating, as only then will we be able to assess the qualities and perhaps the weak points of the Gdańsk citizens Latin.

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In the culture of old Gdańsk, as well as in the culture of Western Europe called Latin Europe for this reasonas well as in the Slavic, Hungarian and Scandinavian Younger Europe, Latin had a significant position throughout many centuries. However, it was not in opposition to the vernacular, Reversal Krieger Trend Imperator Profesjonalne systemy handlowe did not undermine its significance. It served the role of an important carrier of diverse content, chiefly sacral and scientific, educational and literary; however, it did not delay or prevent the development of the vernacular, of the national languages.

They depict the relationship that the authorities and inhabitants of individual cities and towns had with the Commonwealth s capital and king. They constitute a valuable source for learning about the feeling among the burgesses, street decorations, the manner in which the entries and entire visits progressed, or their accompanying attractions. In her study, the author refers to poems and a short poem of Johann Peter Titz, the Reversal Krieger Trend Imperator Profesjonalne systemy handlowe of rhetoric and poetry at the Gdańsk Academic Gymnasium, commemorating the royal visits to Gdańsk.

In the first part of the study, she has summarised the poet s life. The second part has used three of Titz s works concerned with the royal entries into the city.

Each one has been preceded with information on the entries. The author indicates those fragments of the poems that refer to ancient mythology Greek and Roman and other influences of ancient literature on Titz s works, used as means to praise the kings and their wives.

The textbook would become immensely popular in subsequent decades. This compendium may be regarded as part of the trend of antiquarian historiography antiquitates in Latin, usually with the descriptor Graecae or Romanae that had actually existed since the Renaissance and described the broadly-defined spiritual and material culture of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

Presentation of the textbook Rituum is preceded with a brief enumeration Reversal Krieger Trend Imperator Profesjonalne systemy handlowe other books from under the banner of antiquarian historiography, written and published before or in the same, i. What is essential to me in doing that, is to also view Nieupoort s compendium from the local Gdańsk perspective. Therefore, the sources for my searches are largely comprised of the remnants of old early modern Gdańsk book collections, accumulated in the collection of the Polish Academy of Sciences Gdańsk Library.

For the same reason when attempting to determine the method for using Nieupoort s textbook in ancient literature and culture classes I make use of the local curricula, the so-called catalogi lectionum, created with the students of two final years at the Academic Gymnasium in Gdańsk in mind. Many of the antiquitates publications preserved in the collection of the Polish Academy of Sciences Gdańsk Library are worthy of note, for example those that similarly to Nieupoort s book are in the character of a school compendium, including Antiquitates Romanae e Rosino aliisque in compendium contractae et iuxta ordinem alphabeti dispositae bono iuventutis, i.

Introduction to Roman Antiquities What sets apart both of those eighteenth-century textbooks from the two earlier ones is the clear layout of their contents, which facilitates studying. That book must have drawn a strong response from the audience, seeing how as many as twenty-six of its editions and reissues were observed in the eighteenth century. I often refer to that edition in my investigations; however, I also use online sources, such as the fifth, Strasbourg edition, dated to the same year as the sixth, Berlin one.

Description of the target audience of Nieupoort s textbook appears seemingly easy it was comprised chiefly of 20 22 English Section the students of the final years of liberal arts gymnasiums; sometimes also of the students beginning their university education. However, Nieupoort had no intention of contenting himself with the community of eighteenth-century gymnasiasts ; he also designated people with ambitious desires, such as those wishing to make their presence felt in the social or political life, as his potential readers.

Nieupoort, critical toward those who wrote ancient Roman culture textbooks before him, carefully thought through the layout of the material, which is best evidenced in the main body, where the content was divided into smaller fragments this was to allow more efficient access to selected passages and to aid in Firma Bitcoin zarabia pieniadze online memorisation process.

As a result, the book has six larger parts partescomprised of entities referred to as segments membra or chapters capita. The lecture, generally speaking, begins with the presentation of significant elements of the system of the Roman state, taking into consideration the transformations undergone by Super sygnal MT4. over subsequent centuries; and ends with issues concerned with mores in the familial and individual dimensions, as it were.

The contents of each chapter expressed in the titles are as follows: I. By describing the chapters of Part Six paragraph by paragraph, I also attempt to give the reader an idea of the manner in which the material was presented in other parts of the compendium.

To Nieupoort, the notes section was also important. He did not avoid them, often referring to the source material, which is an additional benefit of the textbook. Anyone who referred to the book obtained more than just an extensive set of various topics on the history of ancient Roman culture prints complementing the disquisition on the history of culture, filled with detailed information, were an additional bonus of sorts.

In the Berlin edition ofinteresting due to the Gdańsk context, we can find quite diverse illustrations in terms of their themes. In total, the sixth edition contains 12 plates with prints. However, the graphic contents of the Berlin edition of differ from those of others, such as the Strasbourg edition dated to the same year.

Was this censorship practice? Such a suspicion arises when we see the plate omitted in the Berlin edition that contains several illustrations, e.

Following the discussion of the illustrations thread, it is time to reflect upon the place of Nieupoort s compendium in the context of the local Gdańsk education. The eighteenth-century curricula of the Athenaeum on the Motława Academic Gymnasium in Gdańsk form the basis of this discussion.

And thus, at the beginning ofGottlieb 21 23 English Section Wernsdorf began his lessons on rhetoric and poetry for the twelfth time. Admittedly, his earlier curricula have not been preserved to this day; however, the wording ut hucdum fecit as he has done until now does suggest that it was not the first time that second-year students had the opportunity to hear from Wernsdorf s mouth the explications on the history of ancient Roman culture once developed by Nieupoort.

It is impossible to determine based upon the available source material whether they only heard issues taken directly from the book, or Professor Wernsdorf, famous among his colleagues for his diligence and general erudition, modified the content presented; although officially, it is assumed that the lessons given during the academic classes were original in their nature.

There was definitely more time allotted to lectures on Roman antiquities than one semester in the general school curriculum of the Gdańsk Athenaeum. This is evidenced not only by a record from the Rhetoric and Poetry plan forbut also by two subsequent annual curricula for and In fact, the curriculum records state outright that the hundreds of pages long Nieupoort was sometimes gone through at the Academic Gymnasium in Gdańsk in its entirety.

In writing about Willem Hendrik Nieupoort s compendium in the context of classes at the Gdańsk Athenaeum, it is not without reason that I have focused chiefly on Professor Gottlieb Wernsdorf, as it appears from the curricula preserved that in the eighteenth-century Gdańsk, Nieupoort s name should be associated mostly with the Wittenberg-born publisher of Himerius s works.

Of course, classes on ancient Roman culture took place both prior to and after Professor Wernsdorf died in Januarybut Nieupoort s name is not explicitly mentioned anywhere.

As regards Wersndorf s eighteenth-century predecessors, we either do not know whether they were even interested at all in antiquity as in the case of Johann Sartoriusor we have information that they used Christoph Keller s textbook Gottfried Lengnich worked with the second edition of the compendium titled Breviarium antiquitatum Romanarum.

As for Wernsdorf s successors Carol Benedict Cosack and Carl Morgenstern they solved the problem of teaching ancient Roman culture in a different manner altogether: the former used Gottlob Benedict von Schirach s small textbook; the latter taught by providing information on the history of ancient Greece and Rome, geography of the Mediterranean region, mythology and literature, or even archaeology.

He discussed all issues based on the literature selected by himself. Willem Hendrik Nieupoort s book, derived from the traditions of humane studies on antiquitates, although appreciated in Gdańsk as wellwas forced to yield so to speak to the new trends in the antiquity studies.

It appears to have fulfilled its objective, as it was it that formed the basis for Friedrich August Wolf s future students education at least at the school level. In the eighteenth-century Gdańsk, its popularity was contributed to by one of the most eminent classicists Gottlieb Wernsdorf.

During their academic paths, subsequent generations including the students of his students likely encountered many times new concepts for studying classics and were understanding of them which is evidenced, for example, by a sizeable group of manuscript notes from Wolf s lectures in the collection of the Polish Academy of Sciences Gdańsk Library. This means that the official state-building art created under the Council s patronage was also adopted by the patricians who Sygnaly zlote i srebrne with Neostoic republicanism in their artistic investments.

The most popular ideological iconographic programmes included those from the Red Room, interior of the Artus Court and façade of the Golden House the latter, in spite of having the status of a private foundation with the prospect of a pro publico bono function, had an influence on the façade of the Artus Court and Long Street Gate.

However, this is more about the common principle, the system of building a uniform civic ethical model allegories and emblems expressing moral notions, exempla, famous menthat was, however, formulated each time in an original manner, in an individual configuration, as if subsequent conceptors were attempting to outdo one another in their invention and erudition.

Such moralising or even encyclopaedic programmes concerned both the aforesaid fine interiors and façades of patrician houses, individual paintings or series of them, sculpture complexes, as well as tin coffins, virginals lids, amber picture frames, cups, mugs.

Thus, the analogy between the world and a city-state, between a city and a house with its dwellers, characteristic of the Renaissance socio-political reflection, which was particularly prominent in Erasmus s thought, came to fruition in the city on the Motława. No official art and no private art arose as its antithesis in Gdańsk at least that we are aware of. Even if we assume, taking into consideration the imperfection of human nature, that the patricians attachment to values, declared on the façades of their houses, was partly just as the name would suggest a façade, the backstage of thus defined setting living rooms, studies and chambers of houses is still going to disappoint those looking for spice and piquancy.

In this present study, we move to a city that was attached to Lutheran or Calvinist piety and system of values, formally monitored spiritual life and fined for absence at the Sunday church service; to the city that proposed puritan customs and to the city of formally standardised modest attire. In its inverted form center the same star becomes the sign of consummate evil and hellish intentions.

In other words, black magic. Above, the Reversal Krieger Trend Imperator Profesjonalne systemy handlowe at far right is simply the same as the star at center turned upside down. In each star, evil is found in the form of the goat-headed God of darkness, Baphomet. The occultic star is dominant in this scene of Aquino with all his regalia. The media gleefully devoted maximum attention to the killing of a black man in Jasper, Texas by three white men.

The three chained the mutilated victim to the bumper of their pickup truck and drug him behind until he was dead. The media reported the grotesque murder as a racial crime, a horrible incident of racial prejudice and hate. In fact, the motive for the murder was satanic, not racial. Austin American-Statesman, February 18,p. Notice that two pentagram symbols are prominently displayed as symbolic artwork on the letterhead of the United Fascist Union, a U.

Also observable is the fasces ax and wheat bundled by X insignia. This seven-point star is so arranged that one point of the star—painted black-is pointed downward, symbolizing adoration of he who rules Saturn, the sixth planet from the sun i. The shell represents the love Goddess Aphrodite who, mythology says, rose out of the sea see Revelation for a prophecy about the beast that rises up out of the sea.

The Goddess figure in this ad sits in the familiar lotus position with the flame in her genital area and her arms and hands arranged symbolically. He noted that such an arrangement indicates the revolving of Venus the Goddess, or feminine principle around the sun in an elliptical orbit. The irregular pentagram is a sign of black magic when shown inverted and enclosing the horned head of the goat. The empty sanctuary of the Order of the Solar Temple shows signs of Satanic worship—candles on the floor arranged in a triangular pattern and a Satanic hexagram drawn out on the floor.

In Octoberthe 53 adults and children who participated in the unholy rituals of this cult—headquartered in Switzerland but operating in Canada as well—were found dead, victims of mass, joint suicide and murder. High Priest LaVey and followers at a ritual.

Observe the pentagram on the wall. Mapplethorpe also produced vulgar and unseemly pictures of little boys and girls displaying their sexual genitals. All this, of course, was funded by the taxpayers through that gracious government cultural agency, the NEA. Well, tragically, Robert Mapplethorpe is no longer with us. He has died of the AIDS virus, a result of his homosexual lifestyle. But he left behind a very revealing photograph that he had taken of himself.

On the wall behind the posed artist is a satanic pentagram, the five pointed star so revered by occultists. Frankly, my heart goes out to the late Robert Mapplethorpe. He was a deceived, sick man.

Jarosław Nowaszczuk, prof.